Αρχαιολογικές επισημάνσεις στη ΣαλαμίναPart of : Αρχαιολογικόν δελτίον ; Vol.42, 1987, pages 169-230
Archaeological notes from Salamis
This report presents archaeological material from surface surveys and evidence from excavations on Salamis. An attempt is also made to examine questions of the historical topography of the island and its history on the basis of old and new material, and it is hoped that the present publication may serve as a kind of introduction to the archaeological investigation of Salamis. The report follows a geographical order from the southwest tip of the island eastwards, roughly around the perimeter.1. Pyrjakoni: in the area immediately above the bay of Pyrjakoni are remains of a prehistoric settlement. On a vertical wall of rock, to the west, cuttings having a cultic purpose are visible. In front of it are preserved parts of a circular enclosure, and between the rock and the enclosure sherds of handmade Mycenaean and black-painted pottery were collected.2. Kanakiani: in the valley of Kanakiani remains of a prehistoric wall were observed ± 1 m long. A continuous oblong room ±7.50 m wide extends along its southern side. The wall appears to form the northern boundary of a prehistoric settlement. 3. Lambrano: in the valley remains of an ancient wall were observed in a terrace. Hellenistic sherds were scattered over a wide area. At the end of the eastern branch of the valley I had earlier noticed two ancient tombs with sides built of large stone slabs.4. Satirli: a) a rock with hollows: the surface of the rock, in the bank of a dry torrent, shows signs of having been cut, around a cave-like formation, and there is an artificial cup-like hollow on either side. It suggests a sanctuary, probably a depository. Today the rock face has been covered over by the filling of the torrent bed and is no longer visible, b) Kastelli: a hill to the left of the above dry torrent. On one side, towards the place with the rock with the carved depressions, a prehistoric wall forms a wide terrace. In this area two round, deep hollows can be seen. It is a peak sanctuary, probably connected with the hypothetical votive depository mentioned above, c) A tower or house: on the eastern edge of the hilltop, between the Pandis Rema and the Ayios Dimitrios Rema, are remains of a four-sided structure. There are red-figure sherds in the vicinity, d) Chapel of Ayios Dimitrios: it belongs to the single-cell cruciform type of church with a dome (end of 14th-beginning of 15th c.). It stands on the bed of the dry torrent, and Early Christian and Byzantine marble architectural members from the Moulki district were used in its construction. There are noteworthy early 11th c. Byzantine sculptures.5. Danili: a small plateau, where the Ayios Dimitrios streambed starts. On the top of a smal I elevation N of the plateau are the remains of a four-sided enclosure wall of a fort or shrine. There are Hellenistic sherds in the vicinity. At the foot of the elevation are the remains of two ancient structures. The thigh of an over-lifesize statue and a fragment of another large statue were collected.6. Ginani: an extensive plateau on the south slope of Maliza, the ancient mountain of Akamas. a) Prehistoric settlement: above the eastern end of the plateau, Prosili, stretch the remains of a prehistoric enclosure, including an apsidal building that is worth noting. Outside the enclosure, to the south, are the remains of a four-sided building, b) Prehistoric settlement area in the district of Kastro: it comprises a group of prehistoric sites starting from the Byzantine chapel of Ayios Georgios: a small enclosure preserves some prehistoric parts and encloses a cone-shaped megalith that seems to have originally been erected on a kind of pedestal. North of the chapel there is a hump in the ground that may be a tomb. East of it is a circular formation of stones. West of the chapel are the remains of scanty houses and sherds of the Mycenaean period. On the highest and most distant formation in the area is the acropolis (Kastro), with a wall on its north side. It formed an enclosure wall for a smaller earlier structure, built of larger stones. The existence of a rock surface within the enclosure with an artificial circular hollow suggests that it may have been a peak sanctuary. The oblique sides of the later enclosure seem to have extended towards the north, where two successive later enclosure walls are formed inside of those are the remains of a building (megaron, shrine?). In the area outside there are LH III sherds. On the rocky foot of the mountain to the north can be seen remains of prehistoric structures. To the west and narrowly skirting the western rounded eminence part of a fine paved road is preserved, leading from the plateau at the beginning of the Haliotis Rema to the only well in the district (Pigadi tou Tourkou). It is the remains of a Mycenaean road. It seems that there was a settlement in the area with the rounded eminences, which was the centre of the Mycenaean kingdom of the Aeacids of Salamis. Remnants of the same road are also found in the Haliotis valley, with its safe anchorage of Peristeria (cf. Iliad II. 57). The dry torrent is identified with the river Bocas. To the right of the road, in a fold of the Kochi mountain, the “Spilia stis Kolones" appears to be the same as the “Kychreos antra”.7. Kolones: the ancient remains, no earlier than the 4th c. BC, are connected with the cult of Aias, established here at the earliest after the Persian Wars, either through the transfer of an earlier cult to a sanctuary of his somewhere at Ginani, or simply as a remembrance of his cult in that district. On the rocky shore between Kolones and Satirli are the remains of an ancient road.8. Moulki (officially Aianteion): a) On the rounded eminence of Mikri Kiapha remains were observed of an extensive prehistoric settlement, b) Directly east of the village, in the area of Draketsoula Rock, a structure was noted, probably a tholos tomb. To the south there is a megalithic structure, a kind of tunnel for initiation rites (for a hole passage?), c) In the locality of Vrach’Imadi (Large Rock) can be seen a prehistoric wall with structures against it. d) West of the village, at the spring of Ayios Ioannis, there were preserved, until a short time ago, remains of the walls of Byzantine olive-press, of which only the monolithic crushing stone survives, e) On the summit of Maliza, southwest of the village, remains of a four-sided Hellenistic tower, known as Phourthi (Phournaki), and of dwellings can be seen. To the south are the remains of an ancient pastoral installation.9. Kakivigla: a settlement towards the east end of the above valley. Ancient and Byzantine remains denote the existence of a settlement, a) Ancient building: west of the church of Ayia Zoni an ancient building was noted, b) Ancient olive-press: east of the nucleus of the modern settlement is the built foundation of an olive-press, a monolithic component of the press and a monolithic crushing stone, c) Byzantine olive-presses and churches: southeast of the church of Ayia Sotira were observed remains of a Byzantine olive-press with a typical press foundation. The monolithic crushing stone is used as a watering trough beside a well towards Zarli. Ayia Sotira was apparently built as a single-cell cruciform church with a dome and probably dates to the end of the 10th c. West of the settlement with the Byzantine single-aisled chapel of Ayia Marina are preserved the remains of a watch tower, from which the settlement takes its name (Kaki Vigla). In front of the tower is the base of an olive- press. d) Zarli: small valley, an extension of the Kakivigla valley. A Byzantine church was noted (on the site of the recent church of Ayios Nikolaos).10. Islet of Perani (plan 1:10): on its summit are remains of two ancient buildings. The greater part of the surface is occupied by remains of the First Byzantine period, according to the evidence of coins collected, dating between the years 642-705 AD. A possible 6th c. AD chronology finds literary justification relating to the destruction of Corinth (551/52). A later chronology, however, is suggested by marble material coming from Early Christian monuments in the district of Moulki-Kakivigla that had already been destroyed by that time.11. Selinia: in the small valley remains of walls were observed built of large polygonal stones from a probable peribolos wall with Cyclopean construction.12. Ambelaki: this is the site of the city of Salamis in the historical period. The city seems to have developed after the annexation of the island by Athens in the time of Solon, but it expanded and was fortified during the 4th c. BC. With the decline of Athens, Salamis and its harbour deteriorated so much that in the 2nd c. AD they gave the impression of having been deserted. Life had shifted to the settlements of primary production.13. Islet of Ayios Georgios: ancient tradition placed the tomb of Circe in the Straits of Salamis. The islet of Ayios Georgios is identified with one of the Pharmakouses Islets, where there is a small mid-6th c. Early Christian basilica of that name. Remains have also been found of buildings of the same period, which are probably connected with a purple-dye industry established there. Ancient archite-ctural members from the temple of Athena Skiras and hermaic stelai were also used in the construction.14. District of the modern town of Salamis: a) The town: a series of Mycenaean tombs, remains of a probable megaron and a chute, in the immediate vicinity of which are prehistoric sherds, point to the presence of a prehistoric settlement between the hills of Prophitis Ilias and Myloi. b) District of Zoodochos Pigi: on the northeast slopes of the hill of Prophitis Ilias, Submycenaean tombs and others in the valley of Bretos and further eastwards towards Palouki and Arapi (Naval Station), indicate extensive building activity during the Submycenaean period. The district seems to be identified with one of the settlements in the inscription IG II/III 2,2 Add. p. 8, which grew up in the period of late antiquity and formed the principal town of the island until the Byzantine period, when life perhaps shifted to the place where the Mycenaean settlement had been. Early Christian marble architectural members from Zoodochos Piyi may have come from an Early Christian basilica.15. District of Vasiliko: a valley towards the sea on the northwest of the island (plan 1: 15), which begins at the point where the chapel of Ayios Grigorios stands, a single-cell triconch church with a dome (end of 10th-beginning of 11th c.). a) District of Ayios Grigorios: remains of an ancient settlement have already been noted. Christian graves have been found southwest of the chapel, and Early Christian marble members indicate a small Early Christian basilica. There are also remains of a tower (?), and the ruins of an ancient olive-press. Settlement walls have been found southeast of the chapel. A road led to the settlement of Zoodochos Pigi, b) Ayios Dimitrios: a cross-vaulted chapel southeast of the preceding one, not earlier than the 16th c. Ancient and Early Christian sculptures were observed built into the walls here, c) Souravlia: at the northern end of the valley an ancient olive-press was noted.
Περιέχει σχέδια και επίμετρο, Το άρθρο περιέχεται στο τεύχος: Μέρος Α'-Μελέτες